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Tuesday, September 20, 2011

New antibiotic found in Shark Liver

Jakarta, a compound that serves as the antibiotics found in shark liver. Antibiotic from the shark has become an important breakthrough because it can protect humans from diseases.

Antibiotics found in shark can be used as drugs against human viruses, and revolutionized medicine. Compounds found in shark liver can be used as drugs to treat diseases ranging from dengue fever, yellow fever to hepatitis B, C and D.

Antibiotics known as squalamine has been safe for use in humans as an antiviral drug.

"Squalamine that potentially has broad antiviral properties is very interesting, especially since we already know so much of the ongoing research about how it works on humans," said Dr.. Michael Zasloff of Georgetown University who led the study as quoted from Dailymail (09/20/2011).

In laboratory experiments and animal studies, squalamine shown to produce antiviral activity against human pathogens in diseases such as hepatitis that can not currently be treated.

The discovery is expected to solve the mystery of how the shark with a primitive immune system can be so effective against a virus that interferes with all living things.

"I believe that squalamine is one of the compounds that protect sharks and some other primitive marine vertebrates from the virus. Squalamine appears to protect the body against a virus that attacks the liver and blood tissues. Other similar compounds that exist in sharks may protect the body against viral respiratory infections, "said Dr.. Zasloff said.

"We can harness the immune system of sharks to alter antiviral compounds into drugs that could protect humans against a variety of viruses. The drug will be revolutionary. While there are many antibacterial agents that are owned by doctors and some antiviral drugs to help patients, only some of them are broadly active, "he continued.

Dr. Zasloff discovered squalamine in 1993 and has been clinically tested were able to treat cancer and some eye disorders. "I am interested in sharks because although it seems primitive, their immune system is effective. No one can explain why the shark was so strong," he said.

He found that the compound was able to inhibit the rapid growth of blood vessels such as those found in tumors and retinal disease. But for the study, Dr. Zasloff no longer use live sharks. Since 1995, Dr. Zasloff squalamine have been synthesized in the lab rather than take the network of sharks in the wild.

Dr. Zasloff admits that they are interested in the workings of natural cholesterol-type molecules have a positive electrical charge can act as an immune substance in sharks.

Upon entering cells, squalamine can access only certain cells in the blood vessels, capillaries and heart. Squalamine repel the positively charged proteins that bind to the cell surface of the cell membrane.

Some proteins are removed is usually used by viruses to proliferate. Without the protein, the virus life cycle disrupted. That is, squalamine seems designed to fight certain viral infections.

"For me, the key to the effectiveness of squalamine is that once it is used in the body, then it adjusts the virus life cycle the most. Most viruses take many hours to complete its life cycle. Same time required by squalamine to create tissues and organs resistant virus after administration, "said Dr.. Zasloff.

In addition to act quickly in stopping the proliferation of viruses, squalamine rid the body of predators within a few hours. Furthermore, because the workings of squalamine create a network of host resist infection, not by targeting specific viral proteins, then the emergence of viral resistance can not be anticipated.

In tissue culture studies, squalamine able to inhibit infection in cells of human blood vessels by dengue virus and human liver cells infected with hepatitis B and D which causes liver failure and cancer.

In animal studies, scientists from across the United States found that squalamine is able to control infectious jaundice, estern equine encephalitis virus and murine cytomegalovirus and in some cases can cure animals.

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