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Friday, April 15, 2011

Development and Spread of Cancer

Cancer cells are formed from a healthy cell with a complex process called transformation. The first step in the process is the initiation, in which a change in the cell's genetic material (DNA and sometimes on the structure of chromosomes) trigger the cell become cancerous.

Changes in the cell's genetic material can occur spontaneously or be brought by means of which cause cancer (carcinogens). Carcinogens including some chemicals, tobacco, viruses, radiation, and sunlight. Nevertheless, not all the cells vulnerable to carcinogens. Genetic defects in the cell can make it more vulnerable. Even chronic wounds irritation can make the cells more susceptible to carcinogens.

The second and final stage in the development of cancer is called promotion. Compounds that cause campaign called the promoter. Promoters may be substances in the environment or even some medications (such as sleeping pills).

Unlike carcinogens, promoters do not cause cancer by itself. Only, the promoter to let the cells that have undergone initiation into cancer. Promotion does not have any effect on cell noninisiasi. By doing so, some factor, often a combination of susceptible cells and carcinogen, is required to cause cancer

Some carcinogens are strong enough to cause cancer without the need to campaign. For example, ionizing radiation (which is used in X-rays and produced from nuclear energy and atomic bomb explosions) can cause various cancers, particularly sarcomas, leukemia, thyroid cancer, and breast cancer.

Cancer can develop directly into the surrounding tissue or spread to tissues or organs, which is near or far. Cancer can spread through the lymphatic system. This distribution type is characteristic of carcinoma.

For example, breast cancer usually spreads first time around the lymph nodes, then spreads more widely through the body. Cancer can also spread through the bloodstream. This distribution type is characteristic of sarcoma.

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